- Mon, 08/16/1993 - 12:00
This is an internal (Neibu ziliao) material, which means it is only for theinside circle of Chinese Communists. It was published in 1994 as a chapter of a book written by a government sponsored research group. The title of the book:" Pan-Turkism & Pan-Islamism Study".
Chief editor of the book: Yang faren
Assistant editor: Li Ze, Dong Sheng.
This article was presented from the official Chinese point of view, but it contains large amounts of information about the independent movement in East Turkistan.The historical facts presented here clearly shows that the independent movement has existed from the first day of the communist Chinese occupation of East Turkistan. This article will help youto understand what has been really going on behind that Iron curtain whichkept us isolated from the world for half a century.
We translated the article collectively.I double checked the final copy word by word to make sure its accuracy. In my judgment, it was translated in its integrity. Taking this opportunity, I thank everyone contributed to this translation effort.
Feb 4, 1998
THE ANTI-SEPARATISM STRUGGLE AND ITS HISTORICAL LESSONS SINCE THE LIBERATION OF XINJIANG
To safeguard ethnic unity and national unity is one of the important starting points by which the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) carries out its various tasks. It is the common wish and desire of every nationalities in Xinjiang. In the Manifesto of the CCP's Second National Conference held in 1922, the peoples of every nationalities were called to stand up and overthrow the imperialists and warlords, implement national equality and realize Chinese people's complete independence. In 1930's, some CCP members vigorously conducted propaganda through their fruitful works on the CCP's national policies, including those on ethnic equality, ethnic unity and national unity. They played very important roles in extending the influence of CCP and accelerating the speed of democratic revolution in Xinjiang. On Nov. 12, 1939, Tan-chiu Chen said in his letter to CCP members working in Xinjiang's districts and counties that "the duty and policy of our work in Xinjiang is to maintain Xinjiang as a territory of China, not letting it drop to the bloody hands of imperialists". At that time, CCP member Jian Hu formed a Border Guard Division in Boli County (present Tashkorghan) following an order. He carried out education among various nationality peoples to oppose imperialists and safeguard our country's borderland, and strengthened border patrol relying on various nationalities. He uncovered a British spy network and put down an armed riot stirred up by British spies, contribing to the consolidation of our country's borderland. Right before the establishment of our country, CCP central government paid very close attention to the situations in Xinjiang, and warned us to be careful about and avoid imperialists' split conspiracy. On Sep. 7, 1949, En-lai Zhou pointed out in his report "Several Problems About the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference" that our party will implement an ethnic region autonomy as the main policy in solving domestic ethnic problems; will unite various nationality peoples into a big family". He also pointed out that "We must prevent imperialists from destroying our national unity by using our ethnic problems, such as the conspiracy of British imperialists towards Tibet and Xinjiang and that of American imperialists towards Taiwan and Hai-nan Island. " The report also said that "It is beyond doubt that every people has the right to self-determination. But now imperialists want to break away our Tibet, Taiwan and even Xinjiang. Under such a circumstance, we hope the different nationality peoples do not fall into the traps of imperialists. To this end, we call our country the People's Republic of China, instead of Federation of China." This problem was pointed out on time and with certain intention. In June 1949, when Chinese PLA was bravely proceeding into the whole China and winning victories one after another, the CCP Central Committee obtained a piece of information: In order to maintain its forces, the United States planned a conspiracy to let the "Five Ma", including Bu-fang Ma and Hong-da Ma, retreat to Xinjiang, join the Xinjiang counter-revolutionary forces , establish an Islamic Republic, and declare their separation from China. Under such a circumstance, Chairman Mao and CCP Central Committee immediately came up with a policy of peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, made comprehensive arrangement in all aspects, leading to the realization of this policy and the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang. At the same time, Chairman Mao and the Party Central Committee (PCC) used a strategy to let the PLA enter Xinjiang before the planned time. The earlier arrival of PLA to Xinjiang destroyed the imperialists' conspiracy of splitting Xinjiang, and opened a new chapter in Xinjiang's history. It can be regarded as the first battle against ethnic separatism and the first victory over ethnic separatism led by our Party after the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang.
The struggles surrounding strengthening ethnic unity versus sabotaging ethnic unity, and maintaining motherland unity versus splitting motherland have never stopped in Xinjiang in the past 40 years. Especially in recent several years, with the changes in domestic and international large and small atmospheres, the internal and external separatists established certain collaboration and strengthened their conspiracy activities to break away Xinjiang from China, posing an important threat to the stability of Xinjiang. This situation has been proved by many evidences. This view has become the common belief for PCC leaders, XUAR Party Committee and the masses of every nationalities. This provided us with an opportunity and condition to conduct a study about our struggles on maintaining ethnic unity, maintaining motherland unity and opposing ethnic separatism, to summarize our historical lessons, and to examine our counter-measures.
1. The Characteristic of The Ethnic Separatism Activities Since The Liberation of Xinjiang
Since the liberation of Xinjiang, the separatism activities of a small number of separatists who are, backed by foreign hostile forces, determined to sabotage the ethnic unity and motherland's integrity have never stopped. Analyzing the Xinjiang ethnic separatism and its characteristics through the major ethnic separatism events since the liberation of Xinjiang will help us to summarize the historical lessons of the anti-separatism battle.
1. The Hotan counter- revolutionary riot led by Abdimit on December 31, 1954 was a premeditated act of the Pan-Turkist Imin group who were passing through southern Xinjiang on their way of escape to abroad in the eve of liberation of Xinjiang. Its purpose was to overthrow the power of Chinese Communist party to establish an "Islamic Republic". Through long time preparation, the rioters drafted the " The Guiding line of Islamic Republic", printed posters and pamphlets, selected an administrational body comprised 11 members such as the government committee president Abdimit, the vice president, the military minister and the foreign minister. On December 31, 1954, Abdimit gathered more than 300 deceived public from Karakash, Hotan and Lop counties, and attacked the labor reforming camp of Karakash county, killing on spot one of our commanders, one sergeant and 7 soldiers , looting some weapons and a car, and then he attempted to attack the Hotan county down town. At the same time, the rioters sent people to Niye, Kaghilik and Yaken counties and Kashgar city to stir up bigger riots. Worth a mention is the the fact that during the mere 1.5 years elapsed between this incident and the Lop counter-revolutionary riot of May 4,1956, eight counts of counter -revolutionary riots of same nature broke out in Hotan area. Five of them were exposed and stopped before it started. In addition, plots for riots were uncovered in several places such as Yengisar county, Maralveshi county, Turpan and Ghulja. Throughout all those riots, the same slogans were used: "Allah order us to fight for religion", "Communists robbed Muslim' land, food, minerals and other property". During his preparation for the riot, Abdimit often pushed his activities by exerting his influence as a religious leader. He developed followers in the villages of Karakash county, and used the religious gatherings to force followers to proclaim their allegiance to him by making vows by holding the Quran, and then he encouraged , deceived and threatened the public to take part in the riot. Other than the small number counter-revolutionary backbones, more than a thousand general public were also forced to take part in the riots in Hotan, Karakash and Lop counties. Most of them participated blindly. For example, at the beginning of 1956, the 127 people who got involved in the Lop three district riot tied up our district cadres. At that time, one retired soldier took a kitchen knife and arrived to the scene to explain the truth to the mass. After understanding the truth, not only did they surrender their weapon, but also released the tied cadres. In addition, they confessed that they were deceived. They also captured the backbone rioters, and returned the robbed rifles and food intact. The escaped ones quickly came back to turn themselves in. Hotan counter-evolutionary riots easy come easy go, by the time one is quenched a new one emerges. This is one of the characteristics of Hotan riots. While summarizing the experience after the crushing of the riot, we noticed that Hotan riot was a result of an attack by the reactionaries at the vulnerable links of our work. The vulnerable link in our work was reflected at that we had not done enough religious work, united front work and public education work, there were also some shortcomings and characteristics in policy implementation (for example, the labor reform division has problem in implementing Party's policy, especially the ethnic policy and religious freedom policy. More examples such as, improper restriction of interactions between people, severe control of the small businesses in some places created tension in village bazaars and caused public dissatisfaction). Reactionaries used these weak links in our work, especially the weakness in religious work, to attack us. At the same time, we also noticed that the riot in Hotan were also related to Hotan's closeness to the border and its social connection with the history of the Imin group who escaped to abroad. Hotan counter-revolutionary riot was an well-organized and premeditated act with a clear agenda, it was an act of ethnic separatists. It caused serious damages: killed or wounded some cadres and mass, interrupted production, damaged the social order. For a while, the Chinese cadres and their families did not feel secure to work in Xinjiang, creating a bad political influence, which provided a good excuse for imperialists and hostile forces at home and abroad to carry out sabotaging activities. Of course, the handling of the incident also taught us a good lesson.
2. Both the illegal border crossing incidents occurred in Ghulja and Chochek between early April to late May of 1962, in which many people live in the border area illegally crossed the border to Soviet Union, and the Ghulja counter-revolutionary riot of May 29 were long planned subverting acts of Soviet Union. After the 22nd Meeting of Soviet Communist Party, Soviet authorities used its historical influence and complex ethnic and social relationship in Chochek and Ghulja district to develop illegal Soviet residency and establish intelligence nets through the consulate and its subordinate organization the Russian Chinese Union. They carried out ideological infiltration using printed materials, radio, letters, mailed food and clothes to spread their propaganda about a happy life in Soviet Union. At the same time, they actively played on the ethnic relationship, creating ethnic conflict and setting anti- Chinese trend. Around April 10th, several counts of illegal border crossings by small number of peoples to Soviet Union occurred in some collective farms of Chochek county along the Sino-Soviet border. After that, the situation developed rapidly, and spilled over to other regions, reaching its peak at the end of May. On May 29, the people who were waiting for the Bus to Korghas in the Ghulja Bus station damaged the station office under the instigation of counter-revolutionary individual Abdukadir, and forcefully entered the prefecture congress building and prefecture party committee office, damaged office equipments, and took away some government documents and records from the Ghulja division of foreign affairs office. They took away some weapons from the People's Armed Police, and injured several party officials and armed police. During the riot, the rioters loudly chanted the reactionary slogans: " Xinjiang belongs to us, Chinese occupied our land, down with the Communist Party, down with Chinese". After the suppression of the riot, the small number of reactionaries could not admit their failure, they proclaim: "Chinese killed our people, we have to take revenge!". Over a period of time, reactionary organizations, posters and leaflets that aimed at the destruction of ethnic unity and motherland's integrity continuously emerged in an attempt to establish "Uyghuristan".
Foreign hostile force's direct involvement in organizing our border region citizens' departure, leading up to revolt which later turned into riot, is this incident's characteristic. From January to April 1962, the vice consul of Soviet consulate in Ghulaj went to Chochek many times and met with more than 6,000 people, carried out instigation, and openly announced: " Many people in Chochek came from Soviet Union, Soviet Union still regards them as its own citizens and keeps its door open to them". In addition, he distributed numerous "Invitations", "birth certificates" and "residency certificates". When a small number of border region citizens crossed the border, they also opened border at Chochek, Korghas, Chaghantokhay and Dorbujun counties. They also picked up the arrivals and made arrangements for them. On May 29, when rioters entered the Soviet consulate in a robbed car, not only did the consul, vice consul and secretary etc. receive them but also accepted the robbed weapons from them. When we took measure to suppress the riot, some rioters also entered the consulate, the Soviet consul received them himself again.
During that incident, more than fifty-six thousand people from Xinjiang were instigated to leave for the Soviet Union, most of whom were ordinary minority folks from the border region. There were some government workers and officials among those who left. Under the incitement of our enemies at home and abroad, some people looted national livestock and property and took the booty with them. More than thirty thousand heads of cattle alone were lost. Because so many people left the border, there were more than four hundred thousand-mu land left uncultivated. These events had serious negative impacts on our region's social and productive stability and caused serious economic and political damages as well. Under the patronage of the Soviet government, those small number of ethnic separatists who fled to the Soviet Union united with other counter- revolutionary forces and carried out separatist activities against our region. Through this incidence, we not only saw the Soviet imperialists' true color but also reached a new understanding of the destructiveness of ethnic separatism and local nationalism.
3. East Turkestan People's Party" (short form ETPP) was established during the Cultural Revolution with the help of Soviet spies. The ETPP took advantage of the chaos to encourage ethnic separatism, destroy ethnic unity, promote the independence of Xinjiang and instigate armed riots. It was the biggest counter-revolutionary organization that have ever been formed since the liberation of Xinjiang.
The Eastern Turkestan People's Party was secretly established in February 1968. Initially, it was called "Uyghurstan People's Party." But in order to mislead the public, its name was changed to the same name (Eastern Turkestan People's Party) that was used during the Three District Revolution. In addition, the time of its establishment was falsely alleged to be November 11, 1960 (November 11th of 1944 was the date the temporary Three District government was established). This example clearly indicates that the organizers already gave it much premeditated thought. The so-called "ETPP" set up "Central Chairmen Committee" with a few committee members and alternate members. After the Eastern Turkestan People's Party was established, it swiftly developed by taking advantage of the chaos of the Cultural Revolution. In addition to its three direct organizations known as "Youth Organization," "Tengritakh Revengers," and "Tengritakh Ular," it also established subdivisions in Ghulja, Akhsu, Chochek, Borutala, and Urumchi, one after another from January to April of 1969. They set about 78 counter-revolutionary grass-root organizations altogether, covering Xinjiang's 12 prefectures and cities, 22 province level government organizations with over three hundred members.
After the Eastern Turkestan People's Party was established, the members secretly conspired and discussed its counter-revolutionary guiding principles. The ETPP's central committee and subcommittee drafted articles such as "The Destiny of the Uyghurs," "Eastern Turkestan People's Party's Constitution" and "Eastern Turkestan People's Party's General Principles." The names and articles might be different from one another, but they all contained the following common contents: they all claim: "The ETPP"is the true party of the people of Eastern Turkestan", "Seize the power with the help of the Soviet Union and establish an independent Eastern Turkestan Republic", deliberately distort history and claim "Xinjiang had been an independent country since the beginning of time, it has falled to a Chinese colony only in recent years" , "We must completely liberate the Eastern Turkestan through armed struggle" etc. They slandered Xinjiang's socialist revolution and revolutionary construction as "practicing colonial rule." Some of them even held the banner of Marxism and Leninism and proposed: "We want to establishing an independent country according to the Marxist principle of self-determination of different peoples" Some of the constitution even drew up the "Eastern Turkestan Republic's "national flag" and the "party's emblem", etc.
In order to expand their influence, the Eastern Turkestan People's Party and its grass root organizations printed large quantities of counter-revolutionary newspapers "The Torch", "Wake up", "The Independence", and articles and pamphlets which advocate independence and attack Chinese Communist Party. They also encouraged its members to listen to Soviet radios. ETPP's member Turghun Almas took a vow at that time to "fight for the independence of Eastern Turkestan." He even wrote counter-revolutionary articles such as: "Our Great Motherland-Eastern Turkestan" and "Our Cruel Sufferings and the Way Out of Them" to viciously attack the Chinese Communist Party's general and specific policies in Xinjiang and to slander more than twenty years of accomplishments after the region's liberation. These articles openly spreaded ethnic separatism ideas and advocated Xinjiang's independence. At the same time, the "ETPP" also plotted to establish its counter-revolutionary stronghold, and actively prepared for counter-revolutionary armed riots. They organized to rob banks, department stores, warehouses, and grain stores, etc. to raise funds and materials for their activities in Urumchi, Yili, Karamay, and other places. Some of the counter-revolutionary grass root organizations also drafted out plans to rob the weapons from the military subdivsions and people's organizations. On a dozen occasions, the "ETPP"'s Ili Committee, Urumchi Branch, and Altay Bureau also sent their delegations to Soviet Union and Mongolia Republic to beg for arms and the use of radio stations for their riots and ask for military advisors. The Soviet Spy agency sent a group of fourteen people with spies carrying radio transmitters, weapons and funds for their activities. These groups arrived in Xinjiang and established communication with the "ETPP" nine times. With the order of the "ETPP Central Committee", "ETPP" Southern Xinjiang division gathered some people who were ignorant of the truth, and after elaborate plotting, took off under the command of Ahunov from the town of Kashkar and Mekit in two vehicles loaded with large numbers of firearms in the evening of August 20, 1969 in an attempt to reach to the Soviet boarder. They planned to establish an counter-revolutionary stronghold with the support of Soviet Union, and eventually declare the establishment of Eastern Turkistan Republic. When the group proceeded to near Suhkaz in Atush area on August 21, 1969, they were surrounded and crushed by government military forces who arrived soon after the information was disclosed. As a result, the well-planned counter-revolution military uprising was completely crushed.
The "Eastern Turkistan Party" and its activities emerged by taking advantage of the chaos of Cultural Revolution. The organization expanded dramatically in the vast areas within the province. Some of the organizations came on the scene in the name of various civilian groups during that time. Therefore, its members came from different backgrounds. Some members were government staffs, some were even managerial staffs of different governmental departments, some were young students. For example, the "Tengritagh Revengers", a sub-organization of "Eastern Turkistan Party", was a counter-revolutionary grass-root organization mainly formed by middle school students. At the same time, the "Eastern
Turkistan Party" made great propaganda efforts among students of middle schools, colleges, and universities in order to expand its membership. "Eastern Turkistan Party" was a well organized organization with a clear and sophisticated guiding line. Its plan included expanding the organization, publicizing anti-communist government propaganda, establishing counter-revolutionary strongholds and organizing counter-revolutionary armed revolts, even threatening and assassination of those who disclose their evil activities. All of these shows that they carried out premeditated, well organized and well guided separatist activities in order to separate Xinjiang from the motherland to establish an independent "Eastern Turkistan Republic" with foreign support. This case was uncovered during the Cultural Revolution, and most of its major players were captured. However, its influence was not yet completely eliminated due to various interferences. In recent years, some of the old "Eastern Turkistan Party" members started their frequent maneuvers of activating the ethnic separatist movement again. All of these should have our immediate attention.
4. The counter-revolutionary armed riot which took place in the Barin town of Aktu County on April 5, 1990 was a well-planned, well-organized and premeditated violent act of a small number of reactionaries and ethnic separatists hidden in Barin. Cloaked in religion, they deceived and forced some blind-minded public to take part in their plot to destroy national unity and overthrow the government. The riot was a rare and the most serious incident carried out by the ethnic separatists since the liberation of Xinjiang.
In 1989, a small number of separatists led by Zeydin Yusuf had already started their preparation for the counter-revolutionary riot. On one hand, they took advantage of the religious gatherings in Mosques to brainwash the followers specially the young ones with religious fanaticism to create counter-revolutionary public opinion. On the other hand, they established the counter-revolutionary organization "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party" by secretly communicating with one another. The goal of the organization was very obvious. It wanted to eliminate non believers by promoting Islam, occupy the Barin town by armed revolt and establish the "Eastern Turkistan Republic". To reach this goal, they conducted a series of planning and detailed preparation, which included expanding the counter-government organization, discussing and making decision about the armed riot, work sharing, collecting of monetary support, food supplies and firearms, and organizing combat training etc. Because their plot was partially exposed in mid March,1990, they were forced to change the initial plan and speed up their long planned evil activity. The member recruiting activity of the "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party" turned from underground to public, from individual recruiting to group recruiting, and from tricking to threatening. They formed their major military force the "Islamic Worriers" mainly from young people. At the same time, they intensified the propaganda about the armed revolt. They set up loudspeakers in Mosque courtyards in the villages of Barin and Tur and played cassettes praising the "Jihad". A small number of reactionaries set knives on the ground, and forced people to take vow touching the "Quran" to join the "Jihad". They threatened to kill those who betrays Islam. In the early morning of April 5, 1990, a group of ruffians gathered nearly 200 people to pray in front of the local government building, seeking trouble. In the same afternoon, the ruffians tied up and beaten the police officers who came to keep the social order, and took away their weapons. Moreover, they trapped our party and administration officials, police officers and Armed Police officers for over ten hours in the town government courtyard by madly shooting and throwing grenades at the courtyard, obstructing the Armed police officers came to aid. They savagely killed 7 Armed Police officers. Supported by the Central Government, the Autonomous Region Party Committee took decisive measure and put down the Baren riot on the morning of April 6. The quick suppression of the Barin uprising was a great victory. It was a heavy blow to the foreign and internal separatist forces. It had a great effect on improving the stability of Southern Xinjiang and keeping the stability of the whole Autonomous Region.
However, why did the Barin uprising take place in such a remote village of Xinjiang? Why did it happen under current situation? Some questions need our further deliberation and recognition.
The Barin counter-revolutionary riot was not an accidental event. The constant battle between defending the state sovereignty and safeguarding ethnic unity versus splitting national integrity and trampling ethnic unity has existed for long time in Xinjiang, it is only becoming more grave and real with change in the international and domestic situations. The Barin riot was a reflection of this struggle in an extreme pattern. Actually, the Barin riot was not an isolated event, almost at the same time, similar abnormal phenomena already occurred in other parts of the southern Autonomous region.
The Barin riot has a obvious characteristic: a small group of separatists incited religion mania, and, under flag of "Islamic Jihad", encouraged, deceived and coerced masses to join the riot. "The Biography of King Bograhan", a book published in 1988 by the Kashgar Uyghur Publishing House, is a typical book that glorifies the "Jihad" history. It provided the rebel faction with an ideological weapon to promote "Jihad", and played an extremely detrimental role. For example, in several private religious schools in Kashgar, Yeken, Kucha and Aksu area, the reactionary idea of "Islamic Jihad" had been openly taught among the students, a significant number of whom later became the backbones of the Barin riot. In order to publicize and organize the so-called "Jihad", Zeydin Yusuf also drafted "The Rule of Jihad", and claimed that the "Jihad" is to eliminate the nonbelievers, take weapon and attack the non-believers; and that if the Imam command a person to take part in the "Jihad", he should obey, and even women must kill the enemy in order to protect themselves. He further stressed that the "Jihad" is carried out with money, will power, language and fist. He said that the ultimate moral character of "Jihad" for a man is to cut down the enemy but preserve his own life, and that the Heaven belongs to those who sacrifice their lives for this holy cause. According to "Jihad Rules",they planned and set up counter-revolutionary armed forces that were organized according to the "Jihad" war pattern as front squads, rear guard squads each with its own Imam, and carried out intensive military training, fund raising, food collecting, weapon purchasing and manufacturing. Before the riot, they forced the public make vow by hand-touching the Quran. During the riot, the rioters made vow by holding the "Quran" and stubbornly fought for "Jihad". In particular, they encourage the young people, even teenagers to fight for "Jihad". They deceived them with lies such as: "Those who die for Jihad are glorious martyrs, their soul will live happily up in Heaven", "It is better to die for Jihad and enter Heaven rather than living " etc. A mere 14 year old boy who cruelly killed an armed policeman said in a surprisingly calm and casual manner: "I killed a nonbeliever". From this example we can see that the reactionary ideology of "Jihad" already caused some people to become fanatics.
Before and after the Barin incident, the diffusion of religious fanaticism coexisted with the spread of ethnic separatism . It was on these base ground that the "Islamic Jihad" got revived. From their riot slogans, one can quickly come to a conclusion: the anti-Chinese moods were deeply planted in this remote tiny village with only 3 Chinese out of nearly 20,000 Uyghur inhabitants. In many people's eyes the nonbelievers are the Chinese, the aim of "Jihad" is to purge these Chinese". Zeydin Yusuf and his gang often fabricated rumors such as "the purpose of the family plan policy of Chinese is to destroy the Uyghur nation", "A train full of Chinese pulls into Urumchi in every 15 minutes. We have not enough water and food because they come and occupy our resources". He slandered the policy of developing Xinjiang as "colonizing" and used these to incite ethnic conflict and hatred. He and his followers openly shouted: "Down with the socialism!", "In the past Marxism suppressed religion, and now it is religion's turn to suppress Marxism", "Unite all the Turk peoples, long live the great Eastern Turkistan!" " Take Barin, establish Eastern Turkistan". They also claimed: "We have support both at home abroad". Before the Barin event, all the slogans used in the revolts in Urumchi and other places also had the same ethnic separatism contents such as "Oppose tthe Chinese" and "Establish Eastern Turkistan". This shows the deep roots of "Pan-Turkism" and "Pan-Islamism" and its detrimental influence in Xinjiang. The Barin counter-revolutionary riot had us further recognize that the internal and external separatist forces who support the independence of "Eastern Turkestan" are the major threat to the stability of Xinjiang.
Above, we have analyzed the occurrence, guiding lines and effects of four major riots that have occurred at different times since the liberation of Xinjiang. These four events are typical but they reflected only a portion of the entire story. According to statistics, 19 counts of revolts and riots and194 cases of counter-revolutionary separatist activities occurred in the whole Autonomous Region in the 30 years between March 1951 and May 1981. In recent years, the related departments had more statistical data. These figures clearly indicate that since the liberation of Xinjiang, a small number of anti-party and anti-communism separatists have never stopped their activities to split the unity of motherland. The battle between defending motherland integrity, safeguarding national unity and splitting territorial integrity, sabotaging ethnic unity has existed for long time in
Xinjiang. With the change in the international and domestic situations, the complicity and seriousness of this battle are also intensifying. We should recognize this trend. From these incidents, we also have to concretely examine the Xinjiang ethnic separatsim and its charactersitics.
(1). Because of the historcial reason, "Pan-Islamism" and "Pan-Turkism" have profound influences in Xinjiang. "Pan-Islamism" and "Pan-Turkism" are ideologies that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It represents the benefits of reactionary Mullahs (Muslim priests) and the declining feudal aristocrats and landlords. It advocates removal of class conflict, and the unification of all Muslims and Turk-language speaking nations to form an Islam Empire or a Great Turk Empire. These ideologies came into Xinjiang with the foreign emperilist's invasion into China, and were readily accepted by the old ethnic separatists such as Mohammed Imin. They gradually evolved into the ethnic separatism theory centered on the "Independence of Eastern Turkistan". The essence of its content are three sentences: "Our country is Eastern Turkestan, our nationality is Turk, our religion is Islam". The real purpose of these three slogans is to separate Uyghurs from the Chinese big Family and break Xinjiang away from China's territory to establish an independent "Eastern Turkistan". They advocate to establish a theocratic rule. This shows their obvious reactionay nature.
Since the liberation of Xinjiang, the extremely small number of ethnic separatists and capitalistic nationalists who fabricate rumors to carry out separatism activities are all driven by the "Pan-Turkism" and "Pan-Islamism" ideologies. Even though they emerge with different faces, diffrent organizations and different names at different historical stages, all have a common ground: "Pan-Turkism" and "Pan-Islamism" are always their spiritual support, Eastern Turkistan is their ultimate goal. The profound influence of "Pan-Turkism" and "Pan-Islamism" is the major ideological source of a series of ethnic separatism incidents which occurred in Xinjiang region. The influence of "Pan-Turkism" and "Pan-Islamism" have already formed a relatively complete concept, a concept of "Independent Eastern Turkistan". It has become the reactionary flag of the ethnic separatism incidents. The main content of this concept is to deny that China historically has been a multi-national country, and claim that Uyghur has been historically a different nation independent of China, and insist that Xinjiand was a independent country from the begining of time. From this standing point, they strongly impeded the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang and entrance of the People's Liberation Army into Xinjiang, viciously attacked the Chinese Communist Party's leadership and work in Xinjiang as "implementation of colonialism", "invasion" and "plundering", and claimed " it is the source of the poverty and backwardness of Uyghur people". They encouraged people to oppose communist party and communist system. They attacked the ethnic and religion policy of Party, and strongly promoted ethnic animosity and religious fanaticism and "Islamic Jihad", openly called for armed counter-revolutionary riot and establishment of an independent " Eastern Turkistan Republic" with the support of foreign forces. A series of ethnic separatism incidents that occurred since the peaceful liberation Xinjiang, the uncovered counter- revolutionary organizations such as "Eastern Turkistan People's Revolution Party" , "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party" and "Eastern Turkistan Youth Party", and the slogans, leaflets and anonymous letters that continuously popping up everywhere all strongly advocate Xinjiang's independence as "Eastern Turkistan" , and seek to split out Xinjiang from our motherland. They are all anti-Chinese, they want to expel the Chinese from Xinjiang. " Chinese go back to China" and " Establish Eastern Turkistan" have become the most appealing and universal slogans of all the past separatist activities. Some main views of "Pan Islamism" and "Pan Turkism" have generated a deep reaching influence no matter whether it is in cities or some remote countrysides, no matter whether it is among some party and administration officials or some farmers in the countryside or the nomads on the mountains, especially among young people. A student in Karakash county boldly wrote on his homework paper : "Send back the Chinese, get independence for Xinjiang" and gave it to the teacher. It is obvious that quite a few young people have already got poisoned. Numerous facts have proved that holding the flag of independent "Eastern Turkistan" is the characteristic of the ethnic separatism activities and that the internal and external ethnic separatist forces who hold the flag of independent "Eastern Turkistan" are the main threat to the stability of Xinjiang.
(2). Using religion to excite religious fanaticism and calling for "Jihad" have already become the major instrument for the at home and abroad separatists in the separatist incidents. The serious smashing and plundering incident in which the rioters attacked the Autonomous Region Party head quarter in Urumchi on May 19, 1989 was caused by such measures. The January 13, 1981 disturbance in Karghilik was also instigated by a small number of counter-revolutionary individuals who took advantage of a Mosque fire. The above examples like the 1954 Hotan counter-revolutionary riot, the "Eastern Turkistan Party" of the cultural revolution period, and specially, the Baren event all have reflected this characteristic. In recent years, some ethnic separatists have concluded when they have summarized the reasons for their failure that "They have not used religion this weapon".
We have already noticed that religious activity has already reached to a fanatic level in some places in Southern Xinjiang, a small number of ethnic separatists cloaked in religion are spreading separatism and fighting for ideological strong holds, grabbing away grass root political power and young generation, openly interfering with administration, judicial system and marriage. The pressure of illegal and criminal religious activities on the village basic level officials and masses is getting heavier and heavier. It has become a mental opium, mental terror and mental shackle for people, but a mental weapon for the small number of ethnic separatists. Some praying places have been transformed into places for separatism activities. Some people might ask: How this religion fanaticism has started in Xinjiang? How the internal and external enemy forces carry out ethnic separatism by utilizing illegal religious activities and promoting religion fanaticism?
First of all, numerous facts showed that the introduction of the religious fanaticism by the illegal religious activities is a result of the long term instigation of abroad enemy forces. The "Pan-Islamism" which aims at the strengthening of Islam calls all the Muslims of the world to unite and "rescue and protect Islam" , this has generated a broad and deep reaching influence in Xinjiang. Especially after 1962, some international religious organizations has further enhanced their infiltration activity and influence in Xinjiang. They have used various measures to carry out subversion activities through religion in Xinjiang. One of which is through various channels bringing large numbers of religious books and tapes, many of which contain contents that attack the Chinese Communist Party and Communist System, and spreading "Pan-Islamism" and promoting ethnic separatism. The another one is by directly sending people under different names to Xinjiang by taking advantage of reforming and opening policy of our country to spread religion and expand religious power under the cover of giving religious seminars, setting up public service organizations etc. Some of them openly called for " the Rescue of Islam", and claimed that: "In the past, Islam was defended with lives, it still has to be defended with lives now and in future". They called to fight "to Preserve Islam's Purity". The other one is by strongly expanding the influence of abroad religious powers by funding the construction of new Mosques and new Religious schools as well as hospitals in Xinjiang. They also send invitation to religious individuals in Xinjiang for pilgrimages (Haj). They open religious school in some foreign countries, and by using " free study in abroad" as a bail, attract some young people who went to abroad to visit their relatives or to pilgrimage to stay and study religion. This way, they train a new generation of religious successors, and propagate ethnic separatism ideology. They urge these young people to "return after study to fight for the independence of our motherland". At the same time, they also extend favor to people who go to Haj or to visit relatives, and then instigate them.
In addition, recently, a reactionary religious force is gradually forming and developing in some southern Xinjiang regions. Small number of religious reactionaries are stirring up religion fanaticism and ethnic hostility very actively. They attack the Party's religious freedom policy, and shout: "Use religion to suppress Marxism", and openly proclaim: "War on atheism", and force public to belief in religion. They use various methods to hurt patriotic religious figures, attempt to usurp the religious leadership, and cause some religious establishments to become stages for counter-revolutionary activities. In some places in southern Xinjiang (for example the Baren town), the outlawed religious practices such as "Oshne-Zakat" (religious charities) is coming back and continuously developing. It regulates how much free labor each follower contributes. If they do not provide free labor they will be asked to pay fine. However, the religious leaders never contribute their own labor. Some of them use the religious gatherings to force public donate money and food. Religious interference in law, marriage and education occurs frequently. In some places, there is freedom only to believe in Islam, no freedom not to believe. Whoever does not go to Mosque he will be discriminated, isolated and attacked. They implement religious order by force, force people to fast, force women to wear veil, restrict watching TV and other normal entertainment, hold private court to convict the violators, arbitrarily beat them, violate their human rights. These illegal religious activities have added a heavy economic and mental burden on public, causing moral degradation in some areas. In some places, the Islamic law has replaced the communist law and moral to determine right and wrong and control people's conduct. The "almighty Allah" has taken the place of the the communist ideals as the spiritual support and inspiration. Some public thanks Allah instead of Party's leadership and Party policy for the accomplishments of communistic modernization and the improvement in living standards. The religious fanaticism has grown on this ground.
Moreover, in recent years, separatists at home and abroad are specially emphasizing the training of religion successors and the expanding of religious influence among young people. In this aspect, the wide spread religious schools, specially the private under ground schools played a very bad role. According to investigations, in recent years there about ten thousand talips (religious students) have been educated in religious (including private religious schools), most of them are young people. Even though majority of them obeys law, some of them are quite reactionary. There were 5 religious schools and 150 talips in Karghilik in 1979, but at the end of 1989, this number rapidly increased to 33 and 700 respectively. According to an incomplete statistic at the end of 1989, there were 665 boarding religious schools (classes) and 7081 talips in 4 southern Xinjiang prefectures. The number of part time talips who attended evening classes or studied at Ahun's houses in the countrysides is difficult to calculate. Even some teachers at public schools openly teach religion in classrooms. The seriousness of the problem is that many of the religious schools (specially the private ones) are controlled by reactionary religious powers. Some counter-revolutionaries who were released after many years of labor reform still has not changed and are spreading separatist ideas under the cover of religious teachings among young people in some Karghilik religious schools, they advertise "Jihad". Significant number of people accepted their reactionary ideals of " fighting for the establishment of Eastern Turkistan Republic in Xinjiang". The main instigators and backbones of the Baren counter-revolutionary riot all had studied in private religious schools in Karghilik, Kashgar and Kucha. This situation worth our deep reflection.
Just because of the above reasons, obsession with Mosque building, praying and Haj is gradually getting popular in some places in southern Xinjiang, and spilling over to the whole region. According statistics, there were 17,540 Mosques (or praying spots) at the end of 1989 in the 4 southern Xinjiang prefectures, a 23% increase from prior to the cultural revolution, a 4.8 fold increase from before the 3 rd Meeting of the 11th Congress of Party. Take Baren county as an example, the number of Mosques increased from the 55 prior to the cultural revolution to 109. Besides, all of them were renovated and expanded. On average, each 33.9 families have one Mosque. Mosques are becoming more and more numerous and luxurious, increasing the burden of public. Moreover, many religious professionals (Ahun, Molla) who leads the services in Mosques have not passed the check up, creating opportunity for bad people to mix in, causing the regular religious service goes beyond its boundaries, or even causing the Mosques become the strongholds of counter-revolutionary activities. Religious activities are continuously increasing, Baren town's farmers have two days of community gatherings every week, one is the Thursday Bazaar, the other is the Friday "Juma" in Mosque. All the males have to pray in Mosque or at home five times a day, bend forward 32 times, kiss the ground 64 times, praise Allah 178 times. Because of the gradual growth of religion, some of the region's communists, members of Communist Youth League, cadres and school students were also conciously or subconciously involved in religious activities. Under such circumstances, some religious clergies became very active and many people including cadres followed them. The communist ideology lost its ground in some of the rural areas. As soon as an opportunity occurs, separatists use the religion as a tool to agitate people and easily create the mass unrest or even counter-revolutionary riot. After Barin incident, some of the people who were decieved and made vow touching Quran admitted that Seydin Yusuf and his followers were very misterious, if they were not Ahuns, they were Kazi then, they always carry "Kuran" and read "Kuran" , so we all followed them.
(3). Both internal external enemies are increasingly emphasizing the fight for younger generation. They use various methods to spread separatist idealogy among the young people. A few years ago, Aysa faction at abroad announced that they would "change their strategy". These changes mainly include "Letting the younger generation take lead in the independent activities". Aysa himself once openly said: "We are getting old, our hope is on our younger generation". The separatists inside China is echoing and saying: " Only if we educate and guide our younger generation, can we materialize our wishes". Now we must realize that such changes in internal and external separatist's strategy are already affecting the situation in whole Xinjiang region. This has now become one of the important characteristics of the Xinjiang regional separatist movement.
For example, the leaders of the Jan13, 1981 unrest in Kaghalik county were the students who attended religious schools and very heavily influenced by unhealthy religious ideology. The members of the counter-revolutionary organization "Yalkhun Party" in Payziwat county and the 149 people who attended "May 27" counter-revolutionary riot were all young people, 63 of whom were students from Payziwat High School, 34 were members of Communist Youth League. After the crack-down on the "October30" Kashkhar incident we had undercovered the counter-revolutionary organization "Central Asia Uighurstan Youths Spark Party". In the prison, we interrogated 17 members including the president and the vice president of that party. We found 15 of those 17 were high school students. One of them was 15 years old, 4 of them were 16 years old, 5 of them were 17 years old, 4 of them were 18 years old, and 2 of them were 19 years old. In the Barin incident, most of the leaders were very young. The top five positions of the counter-revolutionary organization "Eastern Turkistan Party'' were held by people ranging from 28 to 20 years old. This is an interesting phenomena.
In recent years, we often saw and heard in Xinjiang the counter-revolutionary rumors, slogans, flyers, and letters thay say: "Get armed and force the Chinese out of our country," "Establish East Turkistan Republic". These activities are getting stronger. It has already raised the percentage of the young criminals. According to a study of the 113 incidents which occurred in the second half of 1988 in Kashkhar, Hotan, Khizilsu and Aksu districts, where counter-revolutionary slogans, flyers and letters were discovered and127 arrests were made as a result, most of the cases were conducted by the people under 25 years old. The youngest one was just 12 years old. Among the121 arrested, 104 of them were middle and elementary school students, 82.2% of the total. Some of them were members of Communist Youth League, members of Red Guard or honor students. This is another interesting phenomena.
In the 30 years between 1949 and1979, almost no demonstration was held by the Xinjiang minority students in Xinjiang, but after 1980, student demonstrations have broke out one after another. This is a new phenomena. Uighur students from 7 universy & colleges including Xinjiang University in Urumchi demonstrated on December 12, 1985. They were openly against the Central Government's decision. That incident spreaded a bad influence to some districts in Xinjiang, Nanjing, Beijing, Shanghai and other palces. Some of the students from Xinjiang University got together and organized this well planned and well organized political incident for which the Xinjiang University became the headquarter. Before and after that incident, some pro-separatism posters and flyers with contents such as: " Chinese out of Xinjiang", "Independence for Xinjiang, long live Xinjiang", "Cut off the railroad from China proper to Xinjiang" were discovered in Urumqi and other districts. In June 1986, another demonstration was organized by a student association in Xinjiang University. They used various excuses to urge students to take part in the demonstration. Using the "support for the minority education" as a cover, they attacked Central Communist Party's minority autonomy policy, damaged the good relationship among the nationalities. They used slogans such as "No big Chinese Nationalism", "No Chinese population transfer to Xinjiang", and created a very bad influence in the society. This phenomena requires our accurate research and study, carefull treatment and high precaution
The above mentioned three phenomena itself indicate the seriousness of the problem. We believe that a high vigilance is necessary against potential dangers. The old influences of "Pan-Islam" and "Pan-Turkism", the attack of religious fanaticism, especially the separatist activities and influences in ideological fields, plus the religious teachings in the religious schools and the wrong ideas spreaded by teachers in all level of public schools (including high, middle and elementary schools) have heavily poisoned the young people who have very little social experiences and are not capable to differeciate. These effects can not be measured by any statistical data. Clearing up those bad social influences requires some time.
Therefore, we should never reduce our alertness.
(4). From the above description, we have seen that the ethnic separatists abroad and at home openly held the banner of "promoting Islam," and "fighting Islamic holy war (Jihad)" as one of the important characteristics of present-day Xinjiang ethnic separatism activities. The counter-revolutionary riot in Bahren County, from its inception and development till its eruption, was carried out under the banner of "Islamic Jihad". Our enemies at home and abroad use "Islamic Jihad" as an ideological weapon against our party and our communist system in order to divide the integrity of our motherland. They gather all separatism under the banner of "Islamic Jihad" and mislead Muslims into the reactionary path of "Islamic Jihad". This indicates that they have developed from conducting ordinary separatist activities to directly using the "Islamic Jihad" banner, and even launching counter-revolutionary armed riots.
Ethnic separatist forces are increasingly inclining towards unified movements. This is the new trend of present-day Xinjiang ethnic separatist movement. By unified movement we mean not only organizational unity but also ideological unity. This unity in ideology mainly manifests itself in that all of the ethnic separatist organizations and ethnic separatists use "Pan-Islamism" and "Pan-Turkism" as their ideological weapon. Organizational unity is apparent in that all reactionary organizations actively establish ties with each other in an attempt to establish a "united battlefront" to unite scattered ethnic separatists, so that they can form a political force to carry out separatist activities systematically with universal leadership and planning. Baren County's "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Party" is an example of an unified movement. It was an organization formed by a group of counter-revolutionaries headed by Zeydin Yusuf. It pursued a policy of "long-term planning, organization expantion, strict discipline and steady growth" along with the counter-revolutionary tactic of "uniting all separatist forces in Xinjiang".
The the well-planned counter-revolutionary organization with characteric strict rules and work sharing system was established in the beginning of 1987 and gained vast influence. This counter-revolutionary organization used Bahren County as its home base, and vigorously tried to expand to the regions south of Urumchi. It has been discovered that ethnic separatists in Urumchi, Kashgar, Turpan, Maralvesh, Cherchen, Tokkuzak, Yengisher, Yakand, Kuqa,Yingisar, Tokhsun, Yopurho, Shaya and other localities had joined the "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Party". They even established subdivisions in Kashker, Yingisar and other places. In order to conceal themselves to preserve forces, they have adopted non-uniform names for their organizations in order to avoid the entire group being rounded up in one fell swoop if discovered. Operational unity shows that when one counter-revolutionary organization organized one activity, the other orgainzations would support and react actively with a common ideological system and common goal.
Moreover, for a while the forces of national separatists at home and abroad joined hands with capitalist liberal tendencies to carry out national separatist activities. This is another characteristic. In addition, as both the international and domestic climate change, they have constantly changed their tactics and slogans to attack our Party's current guiding line and policy, specifically, our party's reform and open-door policy. They often make issue over the tapping of Xinjiang's natural resources and strongly publisize it: "Xinjiang's gasoline is flowing eastward, the cotton is being transferred away." "More and more resources are taken out and few is brought into Xinjiang." They use allegations like: "China plunders Xinjiang's natural resources"; " Stop tapping Xinjiang's natural resources," etc.to incite ethnic separatism and divide our national unity.
In Xinjiang, a small number of ethnic separatists and capitalist liberals have created wrong separatist opinions and carried out separatist activities. Moreover, they have made big issue over the "Three District Revolution". In the fall of 1944, the minority people of Ili, Quqek and Altay regions of Xinjiang, broke out in an armed struggle against the Chinese Nationalist government's reactionary rule and the imperialist invading forces to obtain ethnic freedon and democracy, because they could not endure the cruel ethnic oppression and brutal rule of the Nationalist reactionaries. This struggle erupted under the influence of the Chinese Communist Party and the inspiration of the whole country's people's revolutionary struggle and the leadership of Xinjiang's progressive individuals of every nationality. It lasted altogether more than five years, and converged into the powerful torrent of our national democratic revolution in 1949. Mao Ze-Dong's judgment: "Three Region Revolution is a part of Chinese national democratic revolution" is correct. The revolution gave a heavy blow to Chinese Nationalist rule in Xinjiang and tied up its army, contributing greatly to Xinjiang's peaceful liberation. However, during the early stage of the revolution, because a few feudalistic religious high class individuals took partial control of power, mistakes of ethnic separatism and blind opposition to the Chinese people had occurred. The progressive forces represented by Ahmetjan and others fought firmly against this erroneous separatist tendency and gradually corrected that mistake. The ethnic separatist forces at home and abroad often distort the historical truth and claim that the "Three Region revolution" was "an independence movement", and place it on a par with the Khara Han dynasty of the ninth century, the Yakhup Beg's invasion of Kashker in 1865 and the "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Republic" in Kashker which was manipulated by the English imperialists in 1933, and claim that there were four "independence movements." During the Ghulja riot in 1962, some people chanted "The second Three District Revolution Started!". The proposal of redoing the Three District Revolution after the establishment of People's Republic of China is a matter of different nature, it is not revolutionary, but anti-revolutionary, its purpose is to split the mother land, sabotage the ethnic unity and cause ethnic hatred. The above mentioned Eastern Turkistan Party during the Cultural revolution purposely used the same name and foundation day with the Peopl's Revolution Party of the Three District Revolution period. That act was obviously provocative in nature. During the December 12,1982 incident, small number of students demamded to establish a Three District Revolution Army Foundation memorial day. These all explains the same problem. At the same time, they viciously attacked the representatives of the right path, said:" where did their goal go, where did the fruit of the struggle for independence of Eastern Turkistan go?". The leaflets of the June 15,1988 Event, also read: "Remember, Ahmadjan feeded them (Chinese)." In order to instigate independence and separatism, the separatists at home and abroad viciously attack the right side of the Three District Revolution, at the same time, they strongly praise the wrong side in the early phase. This is the charecteristic of the Xinjiang Separatist powers in making public opinion in idealogical field.
Above, we have mainly analized the major charecteristics of the ethnic separatism since the liberation of Xinjiang, some of those problems still are new trends today, they need to be continuously studied and analized. We repeatedly emphasize and study the ethnic separatism and its charecteristics, because, as Mao Zedong had once pointed out: "Only by thourough studies and recognition of those charectersitics, can we take a proper political measure and right attitude, and will not we treat head for headache and treat leg for legache, but solve the problen from a scientific stand point of view."
2. HISTORICAL LESSONS OF ANTI-SEPARATISM STRUGGLE
The anti-separatism battles led by Party took place tens of times on various scales during the 44 years since the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang. On general, every single fight has ended with our victory and enemy's failure. After every victory, we have never forgotten to summerize the lessons of the fight. Some of the recognitions are deep reaching because they have come from the real combat experiences. Specially, in the recent years' anti-separatism struggles, the Autonomous Region Party Committee has consistantly and repeatedly emphasized that the main threat to the stability of Xinjiang comes from the ethnic separatism at home and abroad. By this basic stand point of view, we had a deeper and more practical recognition of every fight's charectersitics, historical links and the nature as well as the reason behind it, and focused on the study of the long term anti-separatism measures. These all shows that we stand in a more initiative and more self concious position.
"The lessons of history worth attention". While studing the summerized the lessons of the past battles, we have found that other than the concrete situation and lessons connected to the concrete incident's charectersitics, many other lessons are common, they worth our attention when we victoriously unfold the anti-separatism struggle. There are mainly a few aspects need our attention: (1) Continue the education of Marxism ethnic theory and Party's ethnic policy among the officials and mass of every nationality , gradually establish correct ethnic view, increase the power of recognizing and resisting various capatalistic nationalistic ideas and the wave of ethnic separatism idealogy. This is a task of a far reaching importance, it is a measure that has stragetic meaning in fighting against ethnic separatism. In the past separatism movements, other than the small number of backbone elements, there were also a significant number of deceived public involvement, especially in some remote rural areas and normadic settlemnts. The recent situation aslo indicateds that there is a decreasing trend in the age structure of the people involved in separatism. There are more young people involved in the movement, some of them even have become the backbone of the counter-revolutionary organizations. There are multiple reasons behind this phenomona. One of the most importand reason is young people have no established Marxist ethnic view, therefore lack the ability to recognize and resist. Young people will be the main players of the future ethnic relationship, we should start education from the childhood in order to secure a dependable ground work. (2) Take great effort to materialize Mao Zedong's guidelines: "In Xinjiang, economic task has to be given number one priority". The agriculture, animal husbandary and industry have to be more developed year by year, economy has to be more prosperous year by year, people's living standard has to be improved year by year. We need gradually create a strong material base against separatism. Needless to say, the existence of ethnic separatist forces is a reality, but occurrence of the separatist events depends on certain environment and conditions, including international and domestic atmospheres. Development of the economy and further improvement of the living conditions of all nationalities can strengthen the centripetal force and the attracting force among the people of all nationalities. This will improve the ethnic unity and the integrity of the motherland. On the other hand, If our economy does not improve or gets worse, it can cause various social problems, and these problems can be used by the ethnic separatists for their purposes. This kind of consequences have been mentioned many times in our reviews and analysis of the ethnic separatist events in the past. Therefore, developing our economy in earnest and helping all nationalities prosper together is our fundamental task in the field of ethnic affairs in the new era. These are also basic conditions for us to fight against the ethnic separatists. (3) we need to firmly trust and rely on the officials and masses of all nationalities and form a strong force in the fight against ethnic separatists. The cadres and the mass of all nationalities are the main force in the fight against the separatists. We have mentioned and emphasized this point when we summarized our experiences in all fights against the ethnic separatists in the past. We believe that we must establish this kind of viewpoints in our fight. If we always start from this basic thought, we can keep firm control of our fight and have clear battle strategy, we can unite largest number of cadres and common people and help to form a strong media, a good atmosphere and environment in our fight. Only then can we correctly analyze the situation when we fight back and have a firm belief on winning the fight against the ethnic separatists. (4) we must strengthen the leadership of the party in the fight against the separatists. The Chinese communist party is the nucleus force in uniting all nationalities and defending our national integrity. It is also the leadership center for successfully engaging in the fight against the ethnic separatists. Our fight against the separatists is a political fight, and it is the reflection of the class struggle. All the past fights have proven that strengthening the party's leadership and forming a united front of cadres and common people of all nationalities around the party's leadership can not only effectively resist ethnic separatists and minimize their working space, but also expose the activities of the ethnic separatists in the open as soon as any separatist event happens and stop them at the early stage, minimizing any damages to us. The experience in the four parts mentioned above have been adequately stated by our leaders in their theoretical articles at various times and various occasions. In the following sections, we will further review our experiences in fighting against the ethnic separatists from a different angle.
1. In Xinjiang, being firm on national integrity and fighting ethnic separatists is a long term task. For this, we must keep a clear vision. We cannot forget the hard reality that ethnic separatists engaged in activities harming the unity among ethnicities and integrity of our motherland.
Ethnic separatism is the main threat to the stability of Xinjiang, and it is the most important instability factor in Xinjiang and the main form of class struggle in our region. To make this scientific conclusion a common thought of all the cadres and the common people and to make it a grass-root realization, we still need to do a great deal of work. On July 1990, the Xinjiang Autonomous Region Communist Party Committee held its third congress's 15th extended meeting to summarize the experiences and lessons in the counter-revolutionary events in the Baren township. The most important lesson identified in this event was that for a long time, (the leaders of) our autonomous region did not have a unified vision that ethnic separatism is the main danger for Xinjiang, and we did not have a unified guiding thought on fighting ethnic separatism. Thus, the task of fighting ethnic separatism had not been carried out in a top-to-bottom fashion. This lesson is very important, and we still need to pay full attention today. When the activities of the ethnic separatists are frequent and rampant, our alertness is high and our thoughts are united. But when the political situation appears calm or there is no big trouble, some of our comrades become relaxed. In fact, after the Baren event, although the strength of the ethnic separatists was greatly weakened, they never stopped their activities. In the international stage, after the great changes in eastern Europe and the collapse of the Soviet Union, hostile western forces headed by the U.S. collectively focused their target on the destruction of China. Under the name of human rights protection, they encouraged disunity of nationalities by using ethnic relations and religions, and supported and assisted the activities of the ethnic separatists. The ethnic separatists residing in central and western Asia are joining forces. On December 12-14, 1992, Overseas ethnic separatists headed by Eysa Yusuf Alpketin held the so-called "First Eastern Turkistan National Congress". On this meeting, they decided their goal is to achieve an independent "Eastern Turkistan". They chose "Eastern Turkistan" as the name of the country and the blue flag with white crest and star as the national flag. They elected honorary president, president, vice president and vice premier. The meeting stated that they would appeal to the United Nations, international human rights organizations and Islamic organizations to put pressure on China for human rights violations in Xinjiang. They declared they would closely work with the anti-China democratic organizations and unite with the Tibetan and Inner Mongolian forces to get Xinjiang problem internationalized. In the last few years, the separatist movement in Uighur Autonomous Region has had ups and downs for a long time. In 1992 alone, there were 68 counts of counter-revolutionary cases including 57 cases with ethnic separatism nature. In southern part of Xinjiang, a new kind of social phenomenon emerged: some independent pedlars were openly selling old ethnic Separatist's Eysa Yusuf's portaits, selling the three books by Turghun Almas and his pictures. There were also people wearing hats and ties printed with the flag of East Turkistan. Some were selling audio tapes which advocates the history in 1941-1945. In Kashgar and Hotan, there were a lot of private hotels and shops named as "Crescent Hotel" or "Crescent Grocery Store". All these clearly bear political tendencies and should not be overlooked. These acts were related to the ethnic separatist movement in southern Xinjiang. Since the beginning of this year, the activities of nationalist separatists in several places in Kashgar region has had a clear sign of increase. They have planned, stoled and secretly transferred large amount of weapons, explosives, and conducted explosion and terrorist activities. They sent anonymous threatening letters, distributed counter-revolutionary leaflets, spread rumors against Chinese people, insulted the Party's policies and spread counter-revolutionary speeches against communist system. This kind of activities are getting stronger and stronger, the separatism is spreading wider and wider. They have very strong eliciting and destruction power. These phenomenon has already caught the close attention of Party Central Committee and Autonomous Region's Party Committee. "This is the new counter-attack of ethnic separatist forces."
At present, although nobody denies the damage of the ethnic separatism to the unity of our motherland and the unity of different nationalities, there are still some carders and masses lack the clear understanding of the concept that ethnic separatism is the main threat to the stability of Xinjiang. This can definitely affect the idealogical unity among people, and also affect implementation of the anti-separatism struggle at grass root levels. On this problem, we think there are three different partial views: (1) The purpose of stressing ethnic separatism as the main threat to Xinjiang's stability is to protect the unity of motherland, strengthen the unity of nationalities, oppose subversion and penetration of separatism, safeguard the social and political stability of our country, it is the important agenda of doing a good job in Xinjiang. Therefore, when arranging the specific jobs in different times, the Autonomous Region Party Committee members might not be able to point out the importance of opposing nationalist separatism in every speech. Some comrades often start to suspect: "Is that mean we no longer emphasize opposing the national separatists?". Clearly, in order to truly educate majority of officials and public to understand the importance of this point, we need to do a lot of work. To judge whether we have a high and unified understanding of reactionary essence of ethnic separatism, and the long term nature and complicity of the anti-separatism struggle, we have to look at our action to see if every level party committee members and leading carders are truly emphasizing the importance of anti-ethnic separatism as the directing principle in their work and correctly handling the relationship between social stability and economic development, and making the overall strategic plan for the anti-separatism struggle by combining work experience from different times and different battle fronts in political, ideological and cultural fields. (2) Saying ethnic separatism is the main threat to Xinjiang's stability doesn't necessarily mean ethnic separatism has already put Xinjiang into danger and crisis, it means among all the elements that could affect the stability of Xinjiang, the foreign and domestic separatists are the real and main danger. Therefore, we must correctly estimate the situation in the struggle against ethnic separatsim. "We can neither exaggerate nor underestimate this force (i.e. ethnic separatists). At the same time, we simply can not weaken our defence and become careless." (* probably a quote from a high level leader). If we over-estimate the strength and activities of ethnic separatists, we might fall into panic, and cause the army courage be shaken when facing the attacks of the ethnic separatists, our major goal of economic construction might be shaken and get disturbed. We will fall into a state of extreme nervousness and become suspicious of everything and mistakenly label problems of non-religious and non-ethnic separatist nature as ethnic separatist action and thus create confusion in our front. We have sufficient reason to set up our full confidence in the victory over ethnic separatism, because: "Even in the old days when China was a poor and weak country, the separatist action supported by Imperialism could not succeed. Now our great country is getting stronger and stronger, separatists are definitely gong to fail." (* probably a quote from a high lever leader.). On the other hand, it also harmful if we underestimate the strength and influence of ethnic separatism and consider it as "naughtiness of a few kids which can not make big wave". This kind of idea will only open the door for numbness and costs us golden chances of unfolding the struggle. On this struggle, our carders of every level have to be highly vigilant and alert. We can't afford to have a tiny bit of indecisiveness and doubt in this big issue that related to the existence of our regime! At a time when the ethnic separatism has already developed to such a stage to dare to try to overthrow the people's political power by violence, if you still close our eyes to the reality, and don't pay enough attention to what you see and hear, then it is not a question of lack of understanding, but it is a question of your political standing! (3) Some comrades mistakenly think that the considering the separatism as the main threat to Xinjiang's stability is a bit too sharp and stimulant, they even say: " In the past, when we didn't mention the importance of ethnic unity and anti-ethnic separatism, everything was fine. Now, we talk about the ethnic unity every year, but we are having problems every year." This is apparently a wrong concept because no matter whether you stimulate or not, ethnic separatist forces are always the same, they always want destruction. It is exactly like Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out: "To these people, it is not the question of stimulation or no stimulation. Since they are reactionaries, they are the same no matter whether you stimulate them or not. We need to draw a clear line between reactionaries and revolutionaries, expose the schemes and intrigues of reactionaries to arouse the awareness of revolutionaries, and boost our combat spirit and destroy enemy courage. Only then, we can isolate reactionaries and win the every battle with them, or replace them"
2. In order to win the battle against ethnic separatism, we need to implement stable long term ethnic policy and religious policy. "If the policy is not consistant, if it sometimes say this, sometimes say that, it will be harmful to ethnic unity, social stability and development of our nation." (* probably a quote from a high level leader.)
Our party's ethnic and religious policies are the product of combining Marxist ethnic theory with the China's reality of ethnic problems. These policies are widely accepted and supported by public. If we correctly implement party's ethnic and religious policies, the ethnic unity and the unity of our motherland will definitely be promoted, the separatist activities of ethnic separatists will be effectively controlled. Otherwise, any diverge from full implementation of party's ethnic and religious policies would result in the separatists to jump out and carry out subvertion and create their own domain of action. There are quite a few examples for this in our region.
The largest setback in our ethnic tasks occurred during the Cultural Revolution. "We commited a serious of mistakes by exaggerating the class struggle and hurted many minority carders and masses. In our work, we didn't show enough respect to the Autonomic power of minority nationalities." (*probably a quote from a high level leader.) Furthermore, because of serious disturbances caused by Lin Biao and "The Gang of Four", the unity among different nationalities was seriously damaged. As a result, the relationship among nationalities remained extremely tense during and long after the Cultural Revolution. After crushed "The Gang of Four", our party has made great effort to solve the existing problems in ethnic relations in order to eliminate harmful elements to the ethnic unity. The problem of "East Turkistan Party" during the Cultural Revolution and some other ethnic separatist events occurred after the Cultural Revolution are all related to the setback mentioned above. In August of 1980, Autonomous Regional Party Committee held so called Three Level Carders' Conference, the conference made a wrong estimation on nationality relations in Xinjiang and decided to transfer large number of Han carders back to China proper. This decision not only caused Han carder's uneasiness to work in Xinjiang, but also caused serious ideological confusion among minority carders. It severely damaged the unity of nationalities. This can be listed as another setback of Xinjiang nationality issue after the liberation of China. Next year (1981), we experienced "Payziwat Counter-revolutionary Armed Revolt" on May 27, and "Kashgar Event" on October 30. In the Kashgar event, a small number of bad people took advantage of an unfair criminal case and organized to bit up Han carders and masses. These events continue to cause Han carder's uneasiness to settle down in Xinjiang, some of them even start to suspect and question party's minority autonomy policies. The occurrence of Kashgar Event further revealed serious problems in implementing party's ethnic policies in resent years. "We had made some mistakes in implementing party's ethnic policies, ignored broard and thorough education on party's ethnic policy and ethnic unity, and failed to properly solve some ethnic issues. It had created opportunities for our enemies both at home and abroad to cause troubles." (* probably a quote from a high level leader.)
"In some areas, ethnic problems and religious problems often interweaved, if we fail to properly resolve religious problems, it often harms the ethnic relations or even cause conflict among nationalities." We had a deep reaching lesson in implementing party's religious policies. During the Cultural Revolution, counter-revolutionary gang led by Lin Biao and Jiang Qing used force to resolve religious issues, as a result, the underground and scattered religious activities continued to develop. A small number of counter-revolutionary activists and ethnic separatist forces grabbed the opportunity to organize criminal activities and separatism under the cover of religion. They used the slogan of "Promoting Islam" to instigate and promote religious fanaticism. Since the party's "3rd Meeting of the Eleventh Congress", we have done a lot of work in implementing party's religious faith policies and received good result. But, we have to bear on mind that there are still a lot of serious religious problems. We have already pointed out that there are many different elements causing religious problems. Checking our own performance, firstly, we were not fully aware of the seriousness and complicity of religious issue, we have not truly put the religious issue to the top agenda of every level party committee and treat it as a priority. Particularly, we have not been able to consider Xinjiang's religious issue from the standing point of anti-infiltration, anti-subversion and anti-peaceful transformation (to capatalism) stragedy. Secondly, we have not been effective in prohibiting the illegal religious activities. We have not stressed enough the research to find out how to effectively administer religious affairs, how to educate majority of young people to free themselves from the restrains of religion, how to effectively fight against the reactionary religious powers. Thirdly, our propaganda education among the party members and officials about the Marx-Leninism atheist ideology is not strong enough, such education basically doesn't exist in the grass root level countrysides. The small number of minority reactionaries and the ethnic separatists are taking advantage of our failures and mistakes in implementing party's policies. They are strongly instigating religious fanaticism, and carrying out their evil plot of separatism under the cover of religion, forcing us to pay high price.
Therefore, we believe that to continue to fully implement party's ethnic and religious policies and resolve the existing problems according to reality is still an important mission for every level party committees in the battle against ethnic separatism.
3. Ethnic separatism activities have to be stopped at the early phase when it is still in the 'embryonic stage, we can not let it grow and spread.
We have to do whatever it takes to eliminate ethnic separatist activities in their embryonic stage, this is one of our important experiences from the anti-separatism battles. Among the ethnic separatism events took place in Xinjiang since the liberation, we have discovered and crushed many before the plot took effect. Thus, we gave heavy blows to the swollen arrogance of class enemies, and reduced their influence and prevented the potential damage. At the same time, we have also saved a number of deceived masses. In order to achieve this, at one hand, we have to rely on justice organization's work, we do not want to dwell on this topic here. But at the other hand and more importantly, every level party committees have to keep a high degree of alertness and sensitivity, and rely on the patriotism of the masses of all nationalities to protect ethnic unity and motherland unity. Thus, force the small number of ethnic separatists have nowhere to hide. During our research on the history of antiseparatism since the liberation of Xinjiang, we have seen a lot of cases where Communist Party members, grass root level officials and masses informed us of the separatist activities taking the risk of losing their lives. These examples are very touching. At the same time, we have also noticed the cases where our alertness was not high enough and did not crush the already exposed head at the very beginning, consequently causing big damages.
The Hotan counter-revolutionary riot that happened in the end of 1954 had reflected to some extent our low political alertness and the existence of the serious ideological problem of quickly low estimating the enemy. Before the riot, the rioters had concentrated in a place 3 kilo meters from the Hotan county down town, moreover, they held several planning meetings and convened a day in a village where our Town and village officials lived. Supprisingly, nobody reported to us, we did not notice anything. Before the riot, the prefecture committee had received an enemy trend report from Karakash county. However, it was not given due attention, and only a general arrangement was made for handling a general public disturbance. When summarizing the lessons of the "May 27,1981", Paiziwat counter-revolutionary armed uprising, the Kashgar Prefecture committee also noticed that before the event some people in Paiziwat mistakenly believed that Paiziwat was very remote and nothing happened in long period of time, therefore they had not pay attention to some serious social problems (include Religion fanaticism and signs of sabotaged ethnic unity).
The occurrence of Baren counter-revolutionary armed uprising taught us the heaviest lesson on this problem. This town was named "Progressive Town" and honored by higher level authorities many times since 1984 for achievements on 15 different areas (include shedding off poverty, increase in agricultural production, progress in education, and youth and women's tasks). It was also named "Ethnic Unity Model Town" by Aktu county in April 1984 . However, under the award certificates and honor flags were hidden the wave of excessive activities of ethnic separatism, religion fanaticism and anti-Chinese moods. Why did not we notice the rioter's preparation activity which lasted for as long as two years? The reason the Baren armed counter-revolutionary uprising took place could not be separated from the big international atmosphere and small domestic atmosphere, but judging from the reality, most importantly, our recognition of the seriousness of ethnic separatism was not sufficient. In recent years, our effort in preventing public disruption and stopping counter-revolutionary riots has been mainly focused on big cities, small villages have been ignored. In addition, there were a lot of problems in establishing grass root level Party organizations and political authorities in villages, and in the construction of the village ideological bases and thoroughly implementing the religion policy of Party in its integrity, and managing the religious activities and worshipping places. therefore, even though the symptom of the coming riot was very obvious, it did not cause enough attention of the related Party leaders and Political authorities. We missed the opportunity to prevent the riot on time. Because of the ideological numbness and bureaucracy, the matter was resulted in a serious consequence.
Actively engaging in prevention is the important measure in unfolding the anti-ethnic separatism struggle. Autonomous Region Party Committee has recently issued a decree commanding "three not to leave, one implementation": first, do not leave any room for the enemies to carry out criminal activity, do well the management tasks at Mosques, Bazaars, Hotels and Border entrances. Second, do not leave hot spot, actively and properly solve the hot spot problems; third, do not leave room for excuses. At the same time, emphasize implementation, specially of the basic level tasks. These measures are positive and initiative. They are the application and expansion of the experience from the anti-ethnic separatism battles led by our Party under new struggle conditions. In prevention works, we have to pay special attention to properly and timely handling of the ethnic disputes. Handling ethnic disputes is a long term task. Ethnic disputes mainly reflectes the conflict within people, therefore, we have to apply democratic methods such as persuading, educating, guiding, criticism and self criticism. When resolving ethnic disputes, officials of every nationality have to stand on the Party guiding lines and be respectful to Party's policy, closely cooperate and do well the public service together. We have to be truthful to facts and analyze specific problems specifically, we can not attribute every problem to ethnic problem. We have to handle ethnic problems timely and decisively. If not handled promptly, even a small problem might aggravate the conflict, or even be utilized by small number of bad people to sabotage ethnic unity. We have to pay special attention to some accidents that easily cause ethnic conflicts, such as farm land and grassland disputes, school admissions, employment and some hot spots in economic life. We should never be careless and rush when dealing with these problems.
4. We should take decisive measure in every area, and "cut off the connection between the separatists at home and abroad".
When we are analyzing the characteristics of the separatism activities in our region, we have clearly seen that most of the small and big ethnic separatism incidents have international backgrounds. Some incidents occurred by the support and provocation of the abroad enemy forces. (for example, the Eastern Turkistan Party of the cultural revolution period, and the Ghulja and Chochek incident in 1962), some were resulted from the infiltration and influencing of the abroad ethnic separatism forces by various means. The ethnic separatism activities, which are charactersized by terrorism and explosions, that having been taking place in some parts of Southern Xinjiang since this year also have obvious international background. We have to be extremely alert about the separatists plot to make bigger unrest and make Xinjiang problem international by further unifing the abroad and at home separatist forces. This is the agenda of the abroad anti-China enemy forces. Predictably, the abroad separatist forces will employ new measures to further speed up their infiltration and subversion activities in Xinjiang, we should fully estimate the complicity of this struggle.
We have to strengthen the anti-infiltration and anti-sabotaging battle at the borders. Under the new situation, we should make extra effort to "cut off the link between the separatist forces at home and abroad". The opening to outside world is getting wider, the economic and cultural exchange between our country and the neighboring countries are continuously increasing, this in turn also inevitably creating some difficulty in controlling the borders. In order to thoroughly crush the infiltration and sabotaging conspiracy of the abroad separatists, we should at one hand eliminate potential symptoms at home, at the other hand unfold the anti-foreign infiltration struggle, thus, establish a perfect infiltration prevention net. We have to focus our effort on fighting against personnel infiltration, weapon infiltration, propaganda material infiltration and drug infiltration. Especially, we have to make greatest effort to prevent abroad enemy forces from carrying out infiltration and sabotaging activity by using religion. In the religious exchange activities with outside, we have to follow the rule of "me first, only if it useful to me" , we should not allow ourselves to be controlled by foreign religious forces. We do not allow any foreign religion groups or individuals to interfere with our countries religious affair and build praying places and spread religion. The Custom officials have to strictly check the religious books, journals, tapes and other propaganda materials. If the materials contain counter-revolutionary contents, they have to be confiscated. During the exchange and cooperation activities with foreigners, every department on every front dealing with foreign religious groups and its subdivisions or individuals should not permit conditions such as preaching, establishment of religious organizations, building churches to be attached to the cooperation project.
During the summarization of the historical lessons from the fight against separatism, we have not concerned ourselves excessively with how to handle the live separatist events and how to handle the post-event tasks. Some aspects need our attention. For example, we can not lose control when facing an actual ethnic separatist scene, we have to analyze the situation calmly, and define the incident correctly, and then handle the situation by correct rules. The October 30 incident took place in Kashgar City In 1981. The beginning phase of that incident was a conflict within people, but later phase had the characteristic of a conflict between enemy and us. Faced with that kind of situation, we resorted to political resolving, public persuasion, propaganda education. The guidline in handling that incident was to resolve the problem by depending on minority cadres supported by Chinese cadres. Reality proved that that guideline was right. It helped to isolate and strike the small number of bad people who caused the most trouble and seriously hurt people, and the counter-revolutionary elements. It helped to differentiate the small number of bad people and counter-revolutionary elements from the broad minority public. In the 1985, some minority students demonstrated on streets. In handling that incident, the Autonomous Region Party committee applied the experience of "October 30" incident, and achieved a very good result by employing persuasion, social work and intensive ideological and political education policy. It has to be pointed out that, the measure taken against an individual separatist activity is determined by the nature of that specific incident. Some incidents has obvious counter-revolutionary character from the beginning, even carries the sign of violence. For this kind of activities a prompt military suppression and political dissolution measure have to be taken to quickly destroy it. The recent several incidnets took place in some places in Southern Xinjiang had some new characteristics, the Autonomous Region took a measure of confrontation, suppression, preemptive strike and elimination of symptoms. This correct policy is currently being implemented in every field, guiding us to achieve the victory of this war.
Above, we have mainly studied the ethnic separatsim and its several charactersitics based on the major facts from the ethnic separatism activities since the liberation of Xinjiang, and briefly analyzed and summerised the historical lessons from the anti-separatsim struggle led by Party. We should say this research topic has a great level of difficulty. Just because it is difficult, we should stand more firmly by the principle of finding the truth from the facts, and respecting the history and facts. This the principle we have consistantly followed during this research. What we have done is calmly and realistically analyzing the large amounts of historical data, proposing some thinking guidance. We have done this in the hope that it will help people understand the nature of ethnic separatism, and help to elicit their alertness to the threat of ethnic separatsim, and provide reference to the related leaders and departments in studying and arranging counter-measures against ethnic separatsim. This is also the purpose of our work.
Research group counsil: Fu Wen
Project Host: Kou Qingping
Group leader: Zhang Yumo
Material collection and organization: Liu Jianghai, Li Sha