被玷污的圣权:中国对维吾尔宗教自由的铁血镇压
  • Wed, 08/28/2013 - 20:42

立即发布
2013年 8月28日;美东时间:11:11
联系:美国维吾尔人协会;+1 (202)478 1920

维吾尔人权项目发布了其报告《被玷污的圣权:中国对维吾尔宗教自由的铁血镇压》的中文版本。这一报道详述了中华人民共和国对维吾尔人民宗教自由的压迫。

这一报告旨在为中文读者提供一个途径来了解维吾尔人权项目有关宗教迫害的广泛研究,以便驳斥诽谤维吾尔宗教实践的中国政府宣传,并揭露政府镇压之残酷。这是维吾尔人权项目翻译成中文的第四份主要报告。

基于对在东土耳其斯坦宗教迫害目击者的访谈、政府文件、媒体报道、人权组织以及学术观察者的著述材料,《被玷污的圣权:中国对维吾尔宗教自由的铁血 镇压》是自2005年由一个人权组织发表维吾尔宗教压迫报告之后的第一份系统报告,它集中关注自此以后的发展,在2013年发布了英文版本。

 维吾尔人权项目主任阿里木·赛义托夫这样说道,“在最近的几年,中国政府对维吾尔宗教活动的迫害程度剧增,这一报告揭示了维吾尔基本宗教权力被中国当局否决的状况。”“将此信息传达给中文读者至关重要,因为它能展示中国政府的压迫事实。”

在《被玷污的圣权:中国对维吾尔宗教自由的铁血镇压》报告中,维吾尔人权项目记述了中国国家和地方有关宗教法规的演变,以及中国政府官员攻击宗教的措辞。维吾尔人权项目深信,这些法规文件直接影响到将维吾尔和平的宗教活动和非法暴力行为相提并论。

中国地方和中央当局不是简单地禁止宗教活动,而是通过实施系统化的政策法规来压缩合法宗教活动的定义。因此,维吾尔大众发现他们传统的宗教习俗被禁止。这些政策法规使得未经国家批准的宗教团体的生存更为艰辛,而且也强化了对国家批准的宗教团体的监控力度。

中国的官方措辞试图合法化这些管控法规,声称中国的国家安全面临着“恐怖主义”、“分裂主义”和“宗教极端主义”“三股邪恶势力”有组织的威胁。然而,中国政府却从来无法平息对这些指控的质疑。

在被称之为“新疆维吾尔族自治区的”东土耳其斯坦,用以攻击维吾尔宗教信仰的日益增加的国家和地方法规以及官员措辞表明了维吾尔人民的宗教生活在中 华人民共和国境内遭受着最严酷的压迫。维吾尔人民实践的是一种温和的伊斯兰,很多维吾人将其信仰视为文化认同的一种表达方式,以及和汉人区分的标志。很多 维吾尔人将国家对其宗教信仰的个体或公众表达方式的侵入看作是中国政府实施同化策略的一部分,这些同化策略还包括摧毁维吾尔传统社会和社区,将维吾尔语言 从教育体系中析除,以及抑制艺术自由。

对维吾尔宗教活动的严格限制遍布东土耳其斯坦。维吾尔人权项目访谈了其宗教自由遭受此类限制的众多维吾尔人,以及广泛地研究了英文、中文、以及维文 的官方和非官方材料。这些宗教法规的实施贯穿整个地区,那些跨越这些法规的维吾尔人则被无情惩处。中国对于维吾尔的宗教自由的压迫并不以宗教不同而异,无 论是维吾尔斯林还是基督徒,都是中国政府的攻击目标。

维吾尔人权项目记录了对于维吾尔宗教活动的诸多限制。宗教领袖如伊玛目被要求参加政治学习班以确保遵从中国共产党的政策规定;只有国家批准的《古兰 经》版本和说教才被允许,而所有的未经批准的宗教文本被视为“非法”出版物而被收缴,那些拥有这些出版物的个人则面临着刑事惩罚;在政府机关、医院甚至私 营企业,对宗教信仰的外在表露(如男人蓄胡赫女人戴头巾)被禁止;国家工作人员和未年满18岁的未成年人不得进入清真寺,而这些规定在中国的其他地方却不 存在;有组织的民间宗教教育被禁止而那些参与开办伊斯兰经文班的人则被指控为进行“非法”宗教活动;斋月期间,学生、教师和国家工作人员被禁止封斋。此 外,除了官方精心挑选的昂贵的官方朝觐团之外,维吾尔穆斯林不被允许朝觐。

普世的宗教自由得到《世界人权宣言》之第18条保护。中国需要遵从的其他国际文件也确保了宗教自由,如《儿童权利公约》和《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》。中国的国内法如《宪法》和《民族区域自治法》对于宗教信仰自由都有明文规定。

尽管存在这些国际和国内的法律框架,通过实施那些与中国自己的国内法和国际责任相冲突的管控规定,中国将对宗教自由的压迫得以“合法化”。

维吾尔人权项目呼吁多边组织和相关政府对于中国压迫维吾尔宗教自由行动起来,更有力地提醒中国作为国际社会以一负责成员行事的必要性,尤其是在其经 济和政治影响与日俱增的情况下。此外,维吾尔人权项目认为,各方应该促使中国签署并通过《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》以及通过《公民权利和政治权利​ ​国际公约》

《被玷污的圣权:中国对维吾尔宗教自由的铁血镇压》可以在此下载: http://docs.uyghuramerican.org/Sacred-Right-Defiled-chinese.pdf

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The Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) issues a Chinese-language version of its report Sacred Right Defiled: China’s Iron-Fisted Repression of Uyghur Religious Freedom.

For immediate release
August 28, 2013, 11:11 am EST
Contact: Uyghur American Association +1 (202) 478 1920

The Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) issues a Chinese-language version of its report Sacred Right Defiled: China’s Iron-Fisted Repression of Uyghur Religious Freedom. The report details the repression of religious freedom among Uyghurs in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The translation will give Chinese-speaking audiences access to UHRP’s extensive research on religious repression in order to combat Chinese government propaganda maligning Uyghur religious practice and expose severe government repression. It is UHRP’s fourth translation of a major report into Chinese.

Based on interviews with Uyghur witnesses to repression of religious freedom in East Turkestan, government documents, and reports from media, human rights groups, and academic observers, Sacred Right Defiled is the first systematic documentation of the repression of Uyghur religion published by a human rights group since 2005, and focuses on recent developments since that time. It was released in English in April 2013.

“State persecution of Uyghur religious practice in China has increased tremendously in recent years, and this report illustrates how Uyghurs’ fundamental right to freedom of religion is denied by Chinese authorities,” said UHRP Director Alim Seytoff. “It is critical for this message to reach Chinese-speaking audiences, to expose the truth about Chinese government repression.”

In the report, UHRP has documented the evolution of religious regulation nationally and regionally, as well as the role of Chinese government officials’ rhetoric targeting religion. UHRP believes the regulations documented have had the effect of criminalizing peaceful religious practices among Uyghurs on par with illicit and violent activity. Rather than simply forbid religious practices, Chinese local and central authorities have implemented policies that have progressively narrowed the definition of lawful activity. As a result, many Uyghurs find that traditional religious customs are not permitted. Regulations have also made it more difficult for religious bodies to exist without state approval, and increased oversight of such approved organizations. Chinese state rhetoric has justified many of its restrictions through claims that it faces an organized threat to security in the form of the “three evil forces” of terrorism, separatism and religious extremism. The Chinese government has yet to put to rest reasonable doubt over these claims.

In East Turkestan, also known as the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), the intensifying number of national and regional regulations, as well as official rhetoric, aimed at religious belief and practice mean the Uyghur people are subjected to the harshest conditions governing religious life in the PRC. Uyghurs practice a moderate form of Islam and many perceive their faith as a statement of their cultural identity, as well as an assertion of their difference from the Han Chinese. For many Uyghurs the incursion of the state into their private and public expressions of religious belief is viewed as part of an assimilative process the Chinese government is undertaking that includes other aspects of their cultural identity, such as the demolition of Uyghur neighborhoods, phasing out of Uyghur language in the education system and curbs on artistic freedom.

The tight constraints placed on religious practice among Uyghurs are widespread. UHRP interviewed a number of Uyghurs who had experienced restrictions on their right to religious freedom, as well as conducted extensive research in English, Chinese and Uyghur on official and non-state material. Strict implementation of religious regulations was found across the entire region and those Uyghurs found to have contravened religious regulations were punished severely. State repression of religion among Uyghurs is not delineated between different faiths, as the Chinese authorities target Uyghurs whether they are Muslim or Christian.

UHRP records restrictions on a number of aspects of Uyghur religious activity. Religious leaders, such as imams, are required to attend political education classes to ensure compliance with Chinese Communist Party (CCP) regulations and policies; only state-approved versions of the Koran and sermons are permitted, with all unapproved religious texts treated as “illegal” publications liable to confiscation and criminal charges against whoever was found in possession of them; any outward expression of faith in government workplaces, hospitals and some private businesses, such as men wearing beards or women wearing headscarves, is forbidden; no state employees and no one under the age of 18 can enter a mosque, a measure not in force in the rest of China; organized private religious education is proscribed and facilitators of private classes in Islam are frequently charged with conducting “illegal” religious activities; and students, teachers and government workers are prohibited from fasting during Ramadan. In addition, Uyghurs are not permitted to undertake Hajj, unless it is with an expensive official tour, in which state officials carefully vet applicants.

Universal religious freedom is protected under Article 18 of the normative human rights standards outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Other international instruments whose standards China is obliged to meet also ensure the right of religious freedom, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. China’s domestic laws, such as the Constitution and the Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law, have strong provisions on freedom of religious belief. Despite this international and domestic legal framework, restrictions on religious freedom are deemed “lawful” by Chinese authorities through the strict implementation of regulations that contradict China’s own laws and international obligations.

UHRP urges multilateral organizations and concerned governments to act on China’s repression of Uyghur religious rights and more vehemently remind China of the necessity to act as a responsible member of the international community, especially given its growing economic and political influence. Furthermore, UHRP believes pressure should be applied on China to sign and ratify the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and to ratify the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights.

The Chinese language report, Sacred Right Defiled: China’s Iron-Fisted Repression of Uyghur Religious Freedom, can be downloaded at: http://docs.uyghuramerican.org/Sacred-Right-Defiled-chinese.pdf